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What if you discovered how to start an online business by just following 4 easy steps and get started right now? Do you want to know how to start an online business by just using your art of selling?

The purpose of this article is to explain you how to start an online business just sitting at your home and how to make money in this highly competitive market with nil investment. This blog will update you with few easy and simple tips to earn money in internet business successfully.

Here are step by step details to get you started right now.

Step 1- Make your website business

How to start an online business by just sitting at home? If this is the question in your mind, then you are at the right place. You can start using your computer and internet facility to make money for you. It is not compulsory to work full time or part time in internet business. According to your wish you can start working online through internet business.

You can start up by making your own online business or website. This will allow you to earn money off the provision of specific products or services that you may offer. Web hosting, web design; internet marketing etc are some of the online trades.

Step 2- Make your own forum

Instead of focusing on how to start an online business successfully, start thinking about building and communicating with the people who share common interest. You can make you own community or online message board to connect with people online.

Those who all share common interest can participate and freely explore themselves here. It takes some easy steps to create your own online community. It includes selection of topic, hosting provider, create forum, advertise community, moderatos, managing community, strategy and creating community atmosphere.

Step 3 – Your skill to sell

Your skill to sell will also enable you make money online. It is indeed a very lucrative business. For this, you do not need to own a product but you just need to refer and advertise other’s product. When your referred user buys according to your recommendations you get commission for it which is pre decided.

Click bank, commission junctions are some affiliate market places. Marketing of products and services of your area of interest will enable you sell it in an efficient way and you will also earn handsome commission for it.

Step 4 – Participate in surveys

How to start an online business by just participating in surveys? The answer is very simple. You will find many websites online offering to participate in surveys, online data entry etc. They pay you to complete offers as they give recurring commissions in affiliate program. You do not need any specific skill to participate in surveys as so they are best way to earn income.

Discover How I Created a Killer Cash-Pulling-Machine that Attracts 23,883 Visitors and Earns 65.49 on Autopilot from just 20 Days of Lazy Work. Download it here: http://www.howistartinternetbusiness.com/

Don’t go out of the track once you open online business if you go you will lose.

decisions decisions, 2007
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Image by torbakhopper
so i tried my best to watch "an inconvenient truth" last night.

but i kept getting LOST in the blizzard of mysteriously vague and barely visible "facts"

for instance, camera pans in on stratified ice melting glacier. gore’s comedic overvoice drolling, "you can see each ice layer for each year", (but there is no scale so you can’t tell if the layers are ten feet thick, five feet thick, one foot thick? then he says, "we can test ice core samples backwards of 650,000 years"

well, if you do the basic math calculations, allotting one foot per year layer, we would have to have drilled over 123 miles into the earth’s surface

you can keep breaking it down if you’d like (changing the ice core layering numbers, but the point, i guess, is that when "we" have drilled, the ridiculously and all time farthest depth is less than 9 miles) so keep that in mind as you try to make up the facts to match al gore’s proposal

unfortunately, even dumbed down wikipedia adds some contradictions to al’s movie version: "The length of the record depends on the depth of the ice core and varies from a few years up to 800 kyr for the EPICA core. The time resolution (i.e. the shortest time period which can be accurately distinguished) depends on the amount of annual snowfall, and reduces with depth as the ice compacts under the weight of layers accumulating on top of it. Upper layers of ice in a core correspond to a single year or sometimes a single season. Deeper into the ice the layers thin and annual layers become indistinguishable." hmmmm. now that’s really different than the info he was saying. and frankly i think he’s not just full of shit, so are all the people who just jump into junk science because it’s sexy and contemporary. and hey, that IS ANY OF YOU who are just starting to crumble under the repetition of media catch phrases. but don’t blame yourselves or get angry at new information. i know, who has the time to cross reference anything anymore?

there is a startlingly good scene in the book Brave New World where one of the lead characters is told by one of the world leaders that science is bunk. he cries out, "but it’s the backbone of our society". the world leader then asks him what he really knows about science. beyond the jargan and propaganda, what does he really know of true, hard science? and he knows nothing and is ashamed and realizes that he really only knows stories about science, not true science

last night, i watched this movie with someone who kind of belives the same things as helmholtz watson (the dashing, over-intelligent outcast/untouchable… that’s right, the unavoidable corporate caste system — c’mon, you knew there was a reason that the xians and the islams are being pitted against each other, right?!).

periodically, i would stop the movie after one of al gore’s wordy explanations and say, "what does that mean? what did he just say?" not once could my compadre actually relay back the info that was said. so i would, verbatim and then i would ask again, "what does that mean?" but it was idiotic gibberish and had no meaning at all

and way too much of the movie is just sheer "clean up" propoganda. and whose pocket do you think al is in?

not sure if y’all get it but the war btwn the energy cartels and the new corporates is raging pretty damn fiercely in this economic pilot project we fondly call the united states

gore represents globalism and global views. bush is pretending to represent nationalism and nationalistic views (though we know that isn’t true), but he is also global — something like the patriot act (which deals heavily with online internet business, black market and tax evasion issues) would NEVER have passed in this county if he wasn’t involved in globalism at the deepest level — hell, i’m gonna make a NEW WORLD ORDER shirt today to honor his father’s catch phrase

problem/reaction/solution has become the manufacturing goal of the media and corporations are wildly at war with each other. the ability to use nations as human shields or weapons is increasing. humans are becoming weapons, living weapons. once again

if we all jumped heedlessly onto the "clean up" band wagon, we might find some new enlightenment. studies show, however, that "clean up" crew mentality is very lucrative for pocket buddy corporates that "shoot pool" with the politicians and make trade outs for big pay offs. cf the fct up stats from the exxon valdeez clean up if you don’t believe me (no, really, spend ten minutes and do some personal research!!!!!)

but, back to the movie. in ONE breath he states thtat we are politically obligated and MORALLY obligated AND ETHICALLY OBLIGATED to global warming — it’s obvious that includes all of you who aren’t anarchists!!!! you’re all being called to submit and bow down. damn. the anarchist is left out of the equation, AGAIN!

can anyone else smell a fking HUGE TARIFF coming?

have you paid your annual "global warming tax" yet? your share this year is 138,000 u.s dollars. we’ve just taken it from the federal reserve. you paid for it in iraq and at the gas pumps. we burned the money. your country will soon be dancing through a delicious recession until the next bill shows up. use credit. pay later. eat filter fish. take medications. sleep less. get angry all the time. drive your car recklessly

what an entertaining culture!!!!

i think fellini did a great job of interpreting petronius. in his film fellini’s satyricon", the poet refers to us, the viewer and the students in the film as a "race of slaves"

secretly, i prefer mr.huxley’s corporate translation of the same phrase: community, stability, identity

i promise to see the whole movie. maybe several times

my favorite part so far is when he uses the invisible lift to avoid showing how current temperatures correspond with the outrageous projections — i think i even shouted out, "donkey show" when i really meant to say "dog and pony show"

people either forget or don’t know that the little organisms in the ocean that "filter" all the stuff scientists call oxygen (hahaha) that we breathe, well, they’re taking strange vacations lately and going different ways than before for reasons that are related to basic change. revegetation, pattern shifts, industrialization, toxic waste (hey, even little organisms will move away from radioactive poison once they catch on), and so many other things contribute to a different migrational period for them. and weather weapons, which have been tested and used several times within the past five years are just normal outgrowths of comic book fantasies come to life through secret laboratories that fill our cities and communities with ideas and applications, education and doctored foods. it’s not new stuff, folks. none of it

and those little organisms that make all that oxygen will stabilize into "normal" patterns again. and what about the fking whales? and the sonar project that is devastating oceanic life and has been for the past decade? you know what i’m saying? there’s just info coming to the surface that SEEMS NEW and exciting and dangerous. but it isn’t really any of that

it’s just news UNLESS you have to pay for it. then, it’s time to watch the monkeys have their boston tea party

More Start Online Business Articles

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Find out how to start an online business.

Millions of people are searching everyday on how to start an online business. People are getting sick and tired of working for someone else. They are desperate for change. They want a way to fulfill their financial dreams but they just don’t know how to do it.

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It will take daily and consistent effort to succeed in running your own Internet business, but the rewards are worth it. If you put the daily effort in today, you will reap the rewards for years to come.

Think about never having to work for someone else ever again. Does that get you excited? Just think about being financially free and never having to worry about money ever again. What do you think about that? If this gets you excited, then let’s begin the journey right now.

Before you start an online business there’s some important things that you need to look for first.

When looking for the home based business that’s the right fit for you, it’s important to make sure the company offers you long-term residual income potential as well as a high get paid today (GPT) value.

Most businesses today won’t offer residual income potential as well as a high get paid today value but it’s important to find a company that does offer them both together.

Most network marketers fail in the industry because they receive small checks up front, which can’t fund their business or they get a big check up front but no long term residual income.

Since network marketers can’t survive on these tiny paychecks, they end up quitting or hoping from business to business hoping things will change, but they never do.

If you want to have the right balance in your business, then you want to get paid well for your efforts up front plus receive long term residual income that will pay you for years down the road.

When you start an online business it’s important to choose a business that provides you with multiple streams of income. Having multiple streams of income is important to having financial security. These streams of income will come in the form of affiliate partnerships.

Affiliate companies will pay you for referring them business. Some of the top online businesses incorporate affiliate income streams within their business models. It’s also important to partner with the right affiliate companies that are reputable within the industry.

The top online businesses already have these partnerships covered for you, so if you choose the right opportunity you will be all set.

So, you’ve made a decision that you want to start an online business. You realize that you need to Get Paid Today and receive residual income. You also know that having multiple income streams is important as well. So what’s the next step?

You need training.

You need to become a part of a training system that will teach you every step on how to build a successful online business. Remember it’s going to take hard work, and daily discipline to succeed.

The top systems will give you a step by step training program that will teach you every step on how to start an online business the right way.

A training system where you will be mentored by some of the top Internet marketers in the world. People that will give you advice on how to achieve success. Remember, the best way to succeed is to follow the leaders who have already had success.

So, it’s game time now. Are you ready to become financially free? Are you ready to fire your boss? Well, if you are ready to put in the daily work that it will take to succeed, then let’s help you start an online business.

Lucien Bechard is an internet marketing consultant that teaches entrepreneurs how to start an online business. If you’re serious about starting your own online business and need help getting started visit MLSP.

We look back at the poster company that became a phenomenon
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Image by brizzle born and bred
Tennis Girl sold more than two million copies

Tennis Girl was the photograph of the moment a beautiful young woman gracefully raised the flap of her pristine tennis whites, and scratched her bum. Thirty five years on, it remains one of the biggest-selling posters of all time, and news that the now 52-year-old model has been reunited with the image for an exhibition celebrating tennis-related art will surely send many men of a certain vintage scurrying down memory lane and knocking urgently on the doors of their teenage bedrooms.

The image, printed in 1976 by now-defunct poster retailers Athena, was for much of the 70s and 80s a staple feature in the digs of many a lustful young undergraduate, and has since sold more than two million copies.

Although we have never been introduced, many of us know this lady a little better than we should.

Her cheekiest of poses on a sunny tennis court way back in the 1970s remains one of the world’s best selling posters.

The shot was taken at the now defunct Birmingham University courts at Edgbaston on a hazy September afternoon in 1976. Chewed tennis balls belonging to her dog were scattered across the court.

The white summer dress and other items related to the iconic 1970s Tennis Girl poster sold for £15,500.

Fieldings Auctioneers said dozens were interested in the lot, which had a guide price of £1,000 to £2,000.

Ms Butler, who lives in Worcestershire, was not paid for her modelling.

www.flickr.com/photos/barberinstitute/5552346083/

The dress was on show at Wimbledon before it was auctioned.

The tennis racquet from the photo, the dress, a 1979 poster and a 1980s limited edition canvas print were auctioned on the day of the ladies’ singles final.

Fieldings Auctioneers said an anonymous buyer on the phone claimed them following interest from "registered bidders from all over the world", with the furthest away being in New Zealand.

There were eight phone lines open, a "handful of committed people" at the sale room in Stourbridge and "tens of people" interested on the internet, it said.

Director Will Farmer said although there was a guide price, the auctioneers never knew what the lot would go for.

He said: "We have nothing to compare it to because it’s unique – nothing like it has been sold before.

"You’re buying a slice of history and what price is an icon?"

Ms Knotts, a friend of Ms Butler, said she was "kind of amused" by the interest in the poster over the years.

The 55-year-old barrister, who lives in Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, said she did not know the dress was on the poster until her sister at university saw it in 1978.

Asked about the auction, Ms Knotts said: "I am astonished because when I made (the dress), I was saving money and it’s made a lot of money.

"It was cheaper to make your clothes than to buy them then, so I used to make quite a lot of clothes.

"You go to a dinner party and people will say ‘what’s your claim to fame?’

"And that’s the one I’ve always come up with."

Elliott went on to sell the image rights to Athena but retained the copyright, earning him an estimated £250,000 in royalty payments. Two million copies were sold worldwide.

Athena history

Athena’s first shop was opened by Ole Christensen in Hampstead in July 1964, and then bought into E&O PLC, by Chairman, Douglas H. Bayle. He expanded Athena to some 60 shops, making sure to keep the ethos on fine art reprints.

The company’s popular success divided opinion amongst intellectuals and art critics who were uncertain as to whether these works were too vulgar and populist to be considered art.

The chain was sold off by E&O, in 1977 and then was acquired by the Pentos Group before Athena went into administration when it failed financially in 1995. Athena’s last shop Exeter, Devon will cease trading on 21 September 2014, bringing it’s high street presence to an end, e-commerce company under the brand name of Vivarti (with the byline "powered by Athena") continues to trade.

By far the most successful Athena Poster of all time was “Man and Baby“. First hitting the stands in 1986, it appealed to girls of all ages, it captured everything that the stereotypical teenage girl in particular aspired to.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L’Enfant_(poster)#mediaviewer/File:L%27enfant.jpg

Shot in monochrome, the image displayed a great looking man, with a well built nude torso holding a smiling new born baby. The chiselled looks of the man smiled at the infant, as so did the baby. It was not only the retail chain’s biggest hit, but the record breaker in the history of poster sales in the United Kingdom.

Truth behind THAT Athena poster

www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-430099/Truth-THAT-Athena…

Each decade has its iconic poster. Man and Baby, which sold at auction for thousands this week, was the defining image of the 1980s, capturing the then nascent New Man and making fortunes in the process.

By the photographer Spencer Rowell’s own admission, Man and Baby, or L’Enfant, is "a bit cheesy". There’s a cute baby, but the eye is drawn to the buffed and muscular male specimen cradling said infant in his lap.

It made model Adam Perry a hit with the ladies, and a fortune for the photographer and the poster shop Athena, selling more than five million copies.

Twenty-one years after its release, at auction on Thursday, a print of the image went for £2,400 – considerably more than the price paid in the late 1980s by scores of students and young professionals keen to brighten up rented walls.

There were a great many Athena posters which made into the best sellers through this time, as prepubescent and puberty ridden bedrooms became swathed in iconic images and photographs of the age. Held up by vast amounts of putty adhesive and stick back plastic, Athena retail did far more than boost its own standing.

As success fuelled success, more mainstream images were brought into the mix. Superstars such as Michael Jackson, Madonna, Led Zeppelin and the like were soon appearing on prints in the shops. Reproductions of famous artists, notably Salvador Dali too were favourites.

There were still a great many memorable Athena posters that the company went on to commission however; all of which were well received by consumers if not the critics. Indicative of the Nineties for example was a title called Beyond City Limits.

Another black and white print, the image showed a man dressed in leathers sat astride a motorbike. Accompanying him was a blonde woman in typical sultry pose, who’s submissive body language and the presence of the motorcyclist’s hand resting on her leg was perhaps a little outdated with the times. In many ways therefore, it could be construed as a precursor the fortunes of the company as a whole. The tide was turning.

As the nineties came, there was a sizable shift away from posters, and all things printed in general. The digital age had arrived. Art, real art, still had its place of course, but populist designs mass made for the consumer market did not. It was Pentos that would ultimately own the company when it failed

in 1995, but the brand and the memories still live on.
Shadows of “The Tennis Girl” are still seen today. Notably the image of one time tennis star and now full time clothes horse Anna Kournikova acting out her own example. Though for maybe a little more class, GQ magazine’s example with Kylie Minogue is a touch more significant in the grand scheme of things.

“Man and Baby” has inspired when greater though. Whilst Nick Kamen could argue he too inspired the classic blue jeans and rippling torso look, it is perhaps this poster that really drew it. A near naked man, a cute and cuddly baby and camera are all that is needed n many regards to sell practically anything. Indeed, many a new father has probably had a photo similarly taken themselves.

Athena Posters itself has long since drawn away from the public profile it once enjoyed, and many would say the retail industry is poorer for it. However, the stark truth is that it was a brand which just failed to develop with the times. Most industries are harsh, the retail industry perhaps more than most; eating up competition whenever the opportunity strikes. Woolworths, C&A, Army & Navy, the list of failures is ever growing.

There is still life though, as an online art retailer, renamed as Vivarti. Though a number of Athena Poster stores still live on too; but strangely not near the London home. Shoppers wanting Athena posters will have to head to Bristol, Cheltenham, Exeter, Harrogate, Plymouth, Yeovil or York.

How these stores survived administration is unclear, so perhaps at a point in the future they will populate the wider UK retail scene again, only time will tell. But it will probably be worth producing a poster or two.

the poster company that became a phenomenon

It was a turning point for a certain generation: the fading, Blu-Tack’d Snoopy posters were ripped down from the bedroom wall, the teddy bears and dolls pushed firmly to the back of the wardrobe, childish things put away once and for all. In their place went the pin-ups of some fantastically cool and grown-up pop group – Blondie, perhaps (David Cassidy now long forgotten) – and, importantly, the Athena poster, that quintessential mark of the aspiring adult. They were glitzy, glittering, high-living images: airbrushed, scarlet-lipped ladies sipping neon cocktails; chic Parisian beauties with poodles in tow; exotic birds of paradise perching on palm trees. The Athena posters that adorned the bedroom walls of the early 1980s held, for the thousands of British teenagers (girls, mostly) who bought them, the promise of a brave new grown-up world – sophisticated, glamorous and indisputably modern.

Teenage years being tender and formative as they are, it is perhaps no surprise that those who are now in their 30s, and working in influential positions in fashion and photography, have been drawing on the 1980s – and specifically the Athena look – for inspiration. It began with the Chloé spring/summer 1999 show, when designer Stella McCartney sent models down the catwalk wearing two distinctive items: a T-shirt and a bikini, both printed with airbrushed images of sunsets and palm trees. Very 1980s, very Athena and very popular: they became the bestselling items in the Chloé collection. Now such prints are everywhere, from high street to market stall, and the trend shows no sign of abating: designer Martin Kidman has chosen the Athena airbrushed look – bleached-out face, garish make-up – to illustrate the cover of his autumn/winter 2001 brochure.

The revived interest in Athena images is part of a wider phenomenon that has seen mass market and amateur art being reclaimed by the art establishment (the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London staged an exhibition devoted to amateur art last year). A recent book by the designer Wayne Hemingway, Just Above The Mantelpiece: Mass-Market Masterpieces (Booth-Clibborn Editions), devotes a chapter to the Athena phenomenon. Like the rest of the prints in the book – Vladimir Tretchikoff’s Green Lady, JH Lynch’s Dusky Maidens, the "big-eyed children" series – the Athena art showcased represents what real people, as opposed to art collectors, were choosing for their homes in the latter half of the past century.

It is not just early 1980s teenagers who have fond memories of their first Athena moment; the company had already played a part in the first tentative attempts at interior decoration of an earlier generation. When it was established in 1964, Athena was an original idea and its founder, Ole Christiansen, a pioneer. The dedicated outlet was a new notion and took off quickly, just as retailers such as Tie Rack and Sock Shop did a couple of decades later. Athena was, at its start – as successful retail companies tend to be – the height of chic. It was a time when art was obsessed with the ephemeral and the consumerist, and pop artists such as Lichtenstein and Warhol were creating works inspired by advertising billboards and consumer packaging.

Athena’s timing was impeccable. It started with a single shop in Hampstead, offering fine art reproduction prints – Dali, Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso, Lowry, Constable – alongside works by unknown artists and images of the popular icons of the time. They sold in their tens of thousands for 36 shillings (£1.80), framed or "blockmounted" for 50 shillings (£2.50). The first Athena shop was an essential port of call for swinging Londoners, attracting the same crowd as Terence Conran’s fledgling Habitat and Barbara Hulanicki’s groovy Biba. The late 1960s and early 1970s were also a time when students and young couples had more disposable income than before and were keen to make their homes resolutely un-square and distinct from their parents’. Amid the beanbags, swivel armchairs, wicker furniture and paper lampshades, they needed something for the walls: a Salvador Dali melting clock, perhaps, or a Che Guevara, a Jim Morrison or a Jimi Hendrix surrounded by multicoloured, psychedelic swirls. Athena had it all.

Things were progressing nicely for Athena. The company expanded to become a poster manufacturer as well as a retailer and then, in 1977, came the Tennis Girl. The mildly titillating photograph of a knickerless girl in tennis whites, wistfully scratching her bottom, was a phenomenon unlike anything before in the poster trade – estimates of its sales vary from 375,000 to 2m. This came as a surprise to photographer Martin Elliott, who attributes the poster’s success to its "schoolboy appeal". The image has since become a symbol of its era and the tennis girl has been much parodied over the decades by cartoonists in the likes of Viz magazine, as well as by political satirists (one depicted John Major in a similar pose). Every time Wimbledon comes around, Elliott says, enquiries come flooding in – this summer, Anna Kournikova posed for the cover of a magazine in tennis girl mode, and the poster featured in an exhibition in Bradford entitled Pert Pets And Sultry Sirens: The Most Popular Prints Of The Late 20th Century.

Just as many thirtysomething women now look back fondly at the Athena images of glossy sophistication that were so prevalent in their impressionable teens, so, it seems, many men feel a similarly affectionate Proustian rush when confronted with their first poster purchase. And, as it has turned out, the "schoolboy appeal" of the 1970s tennis girl dovetails with the mood of laddism in current popular culture. In one episode of the TV sitcom Men Behaving Badly, the tennis girl featured prominently in a nostalgic 1970s flashback sequence and last year it was parodied on the cover of GQ magazine with Kylie Minogue as model. The appeal of the original, says GQ editor Dylan Jones, was that it was "playful and quite affectionate, not aggressive. We wanted to do something that was ironic as well as iconic – it was successful because it was sexy, clever and it appealed not only to men who remembered the original poster but also to those who were attracted by the image itself." The issue turned out to be GQ’s biggest ever seller – perhaps not surprising, given that the current mood of men’s magazines owes much to the louche playboy sensibility that was fashionable in the 1970s.

Athena’s sales went off the boil after the tennis girl frenzy passed. It wasn’t until airbrushing techniques became fashionable in the early 1980s that the company’s fortunes turned around, thanks to the dreamscape, fantasy-world style of gloriously kitsch prints such as Unicorn Princess, Beach Lovers and A Dolphin Moon. These owed much to Stephen Pearson’s fantastically tacky Wings Of Love, given cult status by its appearance in Mike Leigh’s 1977 film Abigail’s Party.

Unicorn Princess was a huge success with pre-teen girls, due to its combination of fairy-tale subject matter and the essential horse factor. Horses have always featured heavily in mass-market art, from Tretchikoff’s Wild Horses to Violet Skinner’s Galloping Horses of the early 1960s, and Unicorn Landscape, Running Free and Horseman’s Dream were just some of the equine Athena pictures to score. Recently, Stella McCartney picked up on the horse factor in her Athena-influenced creations which, along with the airbrushed palm trees and pineapples, featured rearing horses in silhouette.

The "Kiss series" that so inspired designer Martin Kidman was another big hit for Athena. Created by Syd Brak, an artist from an advertising background, it was planned specifically to appeal to teen and pre-teen girls who, Brak says, "aspire to maturity and sophistication". Pictures such as First Kiss, Forget Me Not and Long Distance Kiss all contained some mini- narrative that chimed with the adolescent psyche, hinting picturesquely at the dramas of teenage melancholy, lost love and heartache. The icy, mysterious girls, their faces bleached out, their eyes smothered in electric blue eye shadow and their lips a streak of glossy red, inspired many imitations with cheap make-up. They also apparently inspired last year’s homage to the 1980s in the Face magazine, which featured on its cover a photograph of airbrush-style perfection. The same photographer, Solve Sundsbo, followed it up with his recent ad campaign for hip design house Bottega Veneta – the collection, needless to say, inspired by 1980s style.

The technique of airbrushing over photographs had already emerged on the sleeve of David Bowie’s Aladdin Sane and as the look gained popularity, airbrushed illustration began to take hold. It was the tail end of punk, when the overly made-up Debbie Harry and Madonna were the icons of choice, and when a streak of pink hair and a slash of heavy eye make-up were all that remained of a movement that had once prided itself on its grubbiness and realness.

Inevitably, the airbrush trend ran its course and by the end of the 1980s, the backlash had begun. Chris Meiklejohn of Meiklejohn Graphics, the company that supplied Athena with around 70% of its original artwork through the decade, says that in the 1990s, clients even stipulated "no airbrushing". But the advertising and graphic art industries are, like fashion, cyclical. With the 1980s aesthetic back (for now, at least), the advertising industry can’t get enough of airbrushing – Pepsi is just one of the brands to incorporate the method in recent campaigns. Andrew Farley, a 1980s Athena artist, is making the most of the resurgence: he has just designed a new range of images, due to appear in the coming months on the T-shirts of a new generation of teenagers.

But as Athena frenzy takes hold, interest in fashion circles has expanded beyond the airbrushed-print look. Even from the early days, when Che Guevara was the pin-up, figures of legend have been Athena staples – after the Kiss series, Brak went on to enjoy follow-up success for the company with his airbrushed depiction of Marilyn Monroe and James Dean in an American diner. This has not been lost on the fashion pack – a recent issue of Vogue focused on a new trend, Heroine Chic: "It’s icon T-shirts a go-go." Kate Moss favours a Marilyn T-shirt with her denim miniskirt and fake fur blouson jacket, while others among the model/party-girl circuit, snapped out on the town, have emblazoned on their chests the likes of Hendrix, Elvis, Dean and Che Guevara – all Athena stalwarts. And where Moss leads, others tend to follow: expect a rush of icon T-shirts on the high street before long.

The black-and-white posters that had been so consistently successful at Athena segued into a trend for monochrome photography with a nostalgic spin. The message was "This Is Art" and it was calculated to appeal to the aspirations of the poster-buying public. "The perception was that if you had this poster on your wall, then you were culturally aware," says Roger Watt, chief art director of Athena between 1986 and 1994. The 1950s were "happy hunting ground" for the company. The contemporary take on the style, "incorporating romanticism, an atmospheric setting and a 1950s look", as Watt puts it, was offered in photos such as Grant Sainsbury’s Bad Company and Nevada Rider – moody models in leather on big bikes, evoking a sultry, Brando-esque machismo. Beyond City Limits by Alwyn R Coates was another huge seller, a black-and-white picture, colour-tinted, depicting a male and female model on a motorbike – shot in Surrey with a dramatic fake sky superimposed. It was a veritable nostalgia-fest: Sheila Rock’s images of young couples in retro clothing, shot in moody lighting, recalled Doisneau’s The Kiss, a classic shot from an earlier era that had already been a big Athena seller. Many of the pictures were accompanied by typography, in the high-brow style of an exhibition poster, thus imbuing the image with a cod cultural significance.

It wasn’t all about nostalgia, though. Athena was also tapping directly into the mood and aesthetics of the moment – the most famous television ad of the time showed the brawny Nick Kamen stripping off his Levi’s in a 1950s launderette. Magazines such as the Face and Arena used monochrome fashion images, notably the work of the Buffalo group, led by the late Ray Petri. Athena was no longer setting the trends but rather offering a watered-down, commercially acceptable version of a look that had begun in a purer form in the style press. In one particularly bizarre photographic series, Cool Kid, toddlers were dressed up in the 1980s uniform of Dr Martens boots, MA1 flying jackets, spiky hair and shades – a bastardisation of an innovative series of pictures in the Face, styled by Petri, of young model Felix.

The style might be borrowed, but for the thousands who bought it, it represented something "cool". As consumer goods go, the poster is a fairly reliable indicator of changing popular tastes and aspirations, and while Athena fell in and out of fashion over the decades, the company always had a knack of tapping into popular preoccupations. It consistently encapsulated the mood of each era, even if it did so, in later years, by reducing it to a lowest common denominator.

One such defining image came in 1986, with the release of a poster entitled L’Enfant, also known as Man And Baby, showing a bare-chested man, cradling a baby. Like Tennis Girl before it, L’Enfant seemed to take on a life of its own and was bought by hundreds of thousands of people. At the time, Spencer Rowell, the photographer who took it, was cynical about the whole "new man" phenomenon. "This idea that suddenly men were going to be different, I thought it was a load of cobblers," he says. Yet, looking back, there was a zeitgeisty feel to the picture – just as the tennis girl had encapsulated a particularly 1970s mood of sexiness for thousands of teenage boys, so L’Enfant represented something quintessentially of the moment for their female counterparts. The message was a new one, as Rowell concedes. "Men had always been supposed to cope under pressure and never cry – then there was this idea that it was okay to be in touch with your feminine side, that your girlfriend wouldn’t think badly of you if you had a quick blub."

In the years that followed its success, Rowell says L’Enfant became a "creative millstone" – he was interested in doing something more "dark and meaningful". Now, he says, he is rather proud of the image: it was a job well done, well crafted, well lit. And then, of course, there was the casting. Paul Rodriguez, the art director responsible, was gay and was, Rowell says, "looking for certain attributes", but he also had a knack for spotting a generic look in a model, a timeless, universal appeal. The identity of the baby in L’Enfant is not known, but the male model, one Adam Perry, has not been shy of publicity. Now in his mid-30s, Perry has become best known for his claim that he has slept with 3,000 women. He was named "the world’s most promiscuous man" by one glossy men’s magazine and, aptly, he posed in a condom commercial.

No single poster has rivalled L’Enfant since in terms of sales, yet, Rowell says, nothing was ever done to "push" it; it became successful simply by word of mouth. "That doesn’t happen now. Anything that’s going to become iconic today will become so simply because enough money and hype have been put into it. Very few things become iconic in a natural way."

Unsurprisingly, Athena was soon after more of the same from Rowell: "Usually a guy with not very many clothes on, or wafting around looking really sensitive on a beach, or holding flowers – stuff like that." The idea was to present pictures of "people living a life that doesn’t really exist", couples under water with dolphins, men larking about on idyllic beaches. Although there was a certain homoerotic quality to some of the pictures, Rowell says their main appeal was to teenage girls. Plus, he adds with a laugh, "black-and-white photography goes with any wallpaper or paintwork".

Although L’Enfant continued – and continues – to sell, the monochrome photography trend at Athena began to wear thin. By the beginning of the 1990s, it had had its day.

Views differ on when and why it all started to go wrong for Athena. Some point the finger at the mid-1980s, when the company was bought by corporate group Pentos. Hemingway, in Just Above The Mantelpiece, argues that, "like many great concepts, when Ole Christiansen sold Athena to a big corporation, the spark was lost". Roger Watt agrees: in the early days, he says, the merchandise was chosen by a haphazard reliance on gut instinct, but as commercial pressure increased, the process became "more scientific". Others say that the company went downhill when Rodriguez died in 1993, while Chris Meiklejohn, who feels Athena lost its way post-airbrush boom, suggests it was a victim of its own arrogance. "Athena started to believe that what it was was important in itself, without renewing itself."

In the early 1990s, when the recession kicked in, money was very tight, Watt adds. Pressure from Pentos increased and "as the parent company grew, we had to become more accountable. We had to justify our strategy to the board of the plc and the MD."

The retail arm of the company ran into problems, with many of the stores not breaking even, particularly those in shopping centres, where rents were high and there was little foot traffic. Original photographic and artwork commissions were cut back, and the company invested instead in numerous licences for movie and other brand merchandise. There was still the odd original work – such as the "fractal optics" series or Dylan, the rabbit from Magic Roundabout, with the caption "Rave On" – but Athena in the 1990s came mostly to rely on big-name licensing deals: Batman, Disney, Warner Brothers, Sonic the Hedgehog, Thunderbirds and the World Wrestling Federation. When a range of Star Wars merchandise bombed, it was a wake-up call for the company.

Athena was spiralling deeper and deeper into debt, and it proved impossible to stem the losses, which reached £5m in the first half of 1994. The rents for the shops were just too high to support the business and at the end of the year, Pentos took the unusual step of putting the stores into receivership, fearing that its losses would drag down the rest of the group, which includes Dillons bookshops. The "ring-fencing" of the subsidiary company ensured that creditors such as landlords would be prevented from claiming money from the parent group. One Pentos insider was quoted as saying at the time, "If a leg has gangrene, you can’t wait too long before cutting it off" and though a receiver described the action as "immoral", it was certainly legal and not unprecedented. The result? A handful of viable outlets were sold to independent buyers, but most of the 157 stores closed.

the poster company that became a phenomenon

It is unlikely that Britain will witness a phenomenon like Athena again, certainly for the time being. Watt doesn’t see much of a future for the poster industry: "It’s a new generation now, a digital age, and kids prefer to download stuff themselves from their computers." Not many stores stock posters now, he says, because the browser racks take up too much space and, besides, "The kind of social interaction kids used to get going down to the high street on a Saturday afternoon with their friends has been replaced by email and text messaging and computer games." Add to this the current preference for clean-living minimalism and it’s hard to see an imminent resurgence of poster mania.

While the 1980s fashion revival looks set to run for a while yet, Athena won’t be back – which is perhaps just as well. It had its time and is probably best remembered in a golden glow of kitsch-imbued nostalgia. If you really want to revisit the old days of Athena, you can always get down to your nearest designer or high street store to buy the T-shirt or the bikini – and wear it with a knowing, grown-up, tongue-in-cheek attitude. Or forget the irony and just relive that youthful rush of aspiration and promise.


In this global recession scenario, it is very hard to think of starting a new business but starting an internet business is surely a better option than others.

The major problem for people to start their own business is the lack of finance and an internet business is the only business where you can start with little cost. Several things should be kept in mind before you start your online business.

To start up your business, you need to have a clear vision and mission in your mind about the content on which your business will depend. This is the very first step and vital too. Once you have the predefined mindset you can start your online business. This is true not only for internet marketing but also for any kind of marketing business.

A clear idea on what business you want to choose also helps you in the future, on your business strategy and tactics.

After choosing the business plan, you need to gather all the required resources that are necessary for starting an internet business. The major resources for setting up an online business are computers and high speed internet. These are the two basic and most important components of internet marketing. You should also have the capability of backing up files in case of your system or power failure.

The other major component to start your online business is the need of a skilled person who has an understanding of Internet and knowledge on marketing strategy and current marketing status. These are the major steps before setting up your online business. If you want to start in a small way, then trying yourself is also an option.

In some of the cases, the freelancers can also prove to be very beneficial. If you are new to internet marketing and want to set up your business then going for some freelancers is the best option. It is cheap and better option. Majority of freelancers are experienced but you have to search for the best freelancer, because its very important, especially if you are new to the business.

You can easily get the traffic from there and as a result can help you to become successful as soon as possible.

The last step for starting an internet business is regular update. You cannot be successful by keeping the same content and following the same business tactics for online business. The need of regular updates, correction of your website and your business strategy is very vital for success of the business.

You cannot think of a healthy business without any change. People also find your website more interesting if it is regularly updated. The changes you bring about in your website and business strategy should obviously good for the user. By following these simple steps, you can assure success for your online business.

Are you interested in starting your own online business and want to make your dream of starting an online business transform into reality? For more details on how to start an online business, please visit the website http://www.startnewonlinebusiness.com.

Montmartre
start online business
Image by John Althouse Cohen
PLEASE FEEL FREE TO USE THIS PHOTO IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CREATIVE COMMONS TERMS. Before using the photo, you must click on that link, read the terms, and follow them. If you do use the photo, please credit me as John Althouse Cohen.

(These things apply to all of my Flickr photos, but I’m repeating it in this caption because this is a very popular photo and many people have asked me about using it.)

Some people have asked me if they can have a print of this photo. It’s not physically possible for me to send you a print of the photo, but you’re free to make a print for yourself as long as you comply with the terms of the Creative Commons license.

There are 3 alternate versions of this photo:

brown coffee and blue bottle (my favorite)

color

B&W

This photo is…

* one of the most "interesting" photos on Flickr

* my most viewed photo (over 30,000 views)

* my most favorited photo (over 400 favorites)

* in the Cream of the Crop group as my most "interesting" photo

* blogged here and here and here and here and here and here and here and here and here and here and here and here and here and here

* also used here and here and here and here and here

The cookie on the saucer is a Madeleine, which Proust immortalized in Remembrance of Things Past.

Learn how you can build a wildly profitable, automated business from ANYWHERE in the world without any prior experience or technical knowledge.
Click here to download your free list of “20 Hot Product Opportunities on Amazon RIGHT NOW” talked about in this video….
http://SecretEntrepreneur.com/20-hot-products

These are all products you could start this business with today. You’ll also get free access to all the other videos in this series using the link above.

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IN THIS VIDEO…
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We’re going to introduce you to a revolutionary new business model where you can build a wildly profitable, automated business from ANYWHERE in the world with just a laptop and an internet connection and without any prior experience or technical knowledge.

A lot of you that are watching this video are probably working a full time job, perhaps one that you don’t like, or doesn’t give you the freedom or income to do what you want.

Maybe you’ve tried starting your own business and you’ve just never really been able to make it take off.

Or… maybe you already have a successful business and your looking for a way to add an additional revenue stream that you can automate and scale very easily.

The thing is, with starting an online business the technical aspect of it can be really intimidating… FTP… Domains… Hosting… HTML and all of that other stuff can soon be overwhelming.

When trying to start a business, especially an online business most people are doing it DEAD wrong. They spend years trying to learn every new marketing trick out there only to have it quickly taken away by some simple change outside of their control.

You need to understand how to build a REAL, SUSTAINABLE, LONG TERM business.

Luckily, you’ve found this video series otherwise you could waste months or even years at a business that just won’t work or even worse at a job that you don’t like without the freedom, time and money that you’ve always wanted.

So in this video series we’re going to teach you how to build a REAL business. One that can be quickly profitable, long lasting and give you the freedom to live the lifestyle that you want
We’ll show you how to leverage the power of Amazon to be able to sell real physical products that people are actively looking for right now.

The Students who have followed these methods are currently generating over 36 MILLION dollars PER MONTH. Now that might seem crazy, but last year Amazon sales were 89 BILLION dollars so we’re not even scratching the surface yet!

There are thousands of students who are generating 10 thousand, 25 thousand, 50, 100, even 250 thousand dollars and more PER MONTH with this business model we’re going to show you.
With millions of products you can sell and a nearly unlimited opportunity, this is one of the most exciting opportunities EVER to build a real business online and we’re going to walk you right through it.

*******

In the next video we’re going to delve into the first critical step of this business… picking a TOP-NOTCH product, EVERY TIME. Then we’ll show you how to find high quality, low cost suppliers for ANY product and how to get them to do exactly what you want.

So click on the link below to download the free list of 20 hot product opportunities on Amazon RIGHT NOW and for free access to the other videos in the series.

http://SecretEntrepreneur.com/20-hot-products

3475417696_9565941ee0

When you start an online business, do you want to pass the successful people and to try everything by yourself? How to start online business is not a guesswork, where every newbie tries to invent how to start my own online business by trying and trying.

If you want to start your online business that way, stop reading now, this article is not for you. But if you want to follow another, proven route starting an online business, keep on reading. Here comes the method, I recommend.

1. First, Make A Self Research.

Sounds funny, but you will be the engine for your online business and it is very useful to do everything so, that they will utilize your strengths. Starting online business after this research means, that it will rest on a solid rock.

Make a tour to your history, school years and other meaningful happenings and think, what were the things you liked, where you were especially good at, and bad, what others said about you and so on.

The target is to clarify your skills, professionalism, wants, talents and style. When you start your online business, these are very important and already at the very beginning. You see, your online business start will be different depending, whether you are HTML, product or marketing oriented.

Finally do a brief summary about yourself, a profile, which includes all the major features of yourself. It is like a list of your technical data, which is the starting point, when you direct yourself further.

2. Find A Proven And Respected Marketer.

When you start your online business, it is extremely important, a must, that it starts to go to the right direction right in the beginning. Who else can guide you, than a proven and respected marketer. The better, if his online business idea is based on the tutoring and helping newbies.

There is one thing, which is very useful and that is your own website, which you can customize later. This is the tool by which you will start to build your own brand. There are principals, who offer this service too.

The requirements for your principal is that he can offer the full set of tools and help: DVD, ebooks, email courses, training pages online, online marketing forum and quick online help. These will offer you a great help, when you start your online business.

3. I Recommend That You Start Your Online Business As An Affiliate.

To start as an affiliate is the best way, because it is easy and offer you a full set of marketing material, tutoring and needed tools. The merchant has done so much ready for you, which you just cannot do by yourself.

4. Be Realistic With The Timetable.

When you are about to start your online business, you are very enthusiastic and are waiting big money overnight. That is not realistic. The realistic way to think, is to understand that online business grows step by step and it takes a couple of years, yes years, to make a decent income. Forget millions right away.

As you see, the method to start your online business successfully is simple, like all successful methods are. I recall once more about the fact, that you have to research yourself, before you will start your online business. Do it, you will thank you later on!

Juhani Tontti, B.Sc., Marketing. Make A Profile Of Yourself And Find A Mentor Who Guides You Steps To Start An Online Business. Find More Start Your Online Business

Bryant Park, late Apr 2009 – 21
start online business
Image by Ed Yourdon
The young woman here is beautiful, and I love the reflection of the keyboard in her sunglasses … but I gotta tell ya: the combination of grass and green-glow on the back of her laptop is out of this world. I have to admit that I used some color saturation to pump up the colors a little … but not much. This photograph made itself: I just happened to be in the right place, at the right time, to point my camera in the right direction and push the shutter-button…

Note: this photo was published in a May 26, 2009 blog titled "Memorial Day Weekend Link Love." And it was published in a June 3, 2009 blog titled "THE NEW COMMENTARIAT." It was also published in a Jun 25, 2009 Romanian blog titled "Vom avea wireless în Craiova?" It was also published as an illustration in a Sep 2009 Mahalo blog titled "Bryant Young," at www-dot-mahalo-dot-com-slash-bryant-dash-young, even though it has nothing to do with the football player of that name….

Moving into 2010, the photo was published in a Jan 15, 2010 blog titled "Die Fußball WM live auf dem Laptop: Aber wie?" And it was published in a Mar 5, 2010 blog titled "Two Simple Ways to Make Every Action Count." It was also published in a Jun 27, 2010 blog titled " „Isch hab Rücken!“ – mit dem Laptop auf dem Boden sitzen." And it was published in a Jul 6, 2010 blog titled "7 Ways To Bump Your Frequent Flyer Earning Up A Notch." It was also published in a Jul 7, 2010 blog titled "Know Your Laptop’s Temperature Limits to Avoid Summer Meltdowns." And I just discovered that the photo was published in a May 26, 2010 blog titled "Memorial Day Weekend Link Love." It was also published in a Jul 9, 2010 blog titled "Links: Let Your Mind Wander, Credit Cards, Paranoid Collaborators, and More." And it was published in a Jul 11, 2010 blog titled "Modern Muses," as well as a Jul 20, 2010 blog titled "What Does It Mean to be a Nomad?" It was also published in a Jul 24, 2010 blog titled "夏の外出でパソコンを持ち歩く時に気をつけるべき9つのポイント,"which I think means "Summer Laptop" And it was published in a Sep 2, 2010 blog titled "5 Essential Web Marketing Tools for Small Green Businesses." It was also published in a Sep 10, 2010 blog titled "No mundo online." And, for no obvious reason at all, it was published in a Sep 30, 2010 blog titled "credit card programs, which is better, cash back (i.e. 4% on American Express) or frequent flyer miles bonus?" It was also published — again, for no obvious reason — in an Oct 13, 2010 "Credit Card Trends Daily" blog titled "Discover How To Maximize the Potentials of a Low APR Credit Card." And it was published in a Nov 1, 2010 blog titled "The Secret to Doing Your Best Work Effortlessly , as well as a Nov 2, 2010 blog titled "Thing 11: My Flickr Experience." It was also published in an undated (mid-Nov 2010) blog titled "Make Travel a Part of Your Life Again with Airline Miles Credit Cards." It was also published in an undated (late Nov 2010) blog titled " Make Travel Affordable and Easy with Airline Miles Credit Cards." And it was published in an undated (Dec 2010) blog titled "Are You One of the Millions That Could Benefit from an Airline Miles Credit Card?" It was also published in an Dec 19, 2010 blog titled "Airline Miles Credit Card Comparison," and it was published in a Dec 23, 2010 blog titled "Idée cadeau : Vivre léger."

Moving into 2011, the photo was published in a Feb 20, 2011 Polish blog titled "Prowadzisz fan page? Sprawdź, czy Twoja aktywność nie trafia w próżnię," as well as a Feb 20, 2011 Girl Log blog , with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written on this Flickr page. It was also published in a Feb 22, 2011 blog titled "WNBA’s L.A. Chapter Presents Bookwoman Day On Saturday." And it was published in a Mar 11, 2011 blog titled "Top 10 Reasons to Work Online." It was also published in an Apr 1, 2011 Work At Home Careers blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written on this Flickr page. And it was published in an Apr 4, 2011 blog titled "당신의 길을 가라." It was also published in an Apr 8, 2011 blog titled "Internet gratuit, c’est possible!", as well as an Apr 11, 2011 blog titled "Enola the Welder, Woman Welder at Heil Company." And it was published as an illustration in an undated (late Apr 2011) Book Drum website. It was also published in an Apr 25, 2011 blog titled "What Kind Of Blogs Do Women Love?" as well as an Apr 25, 2011 blog titled "Article Marketing Domination Review: The Definative Resource For Article Marketing." And it was published in an Apr 26, 2011 blog titled "„The innere Schweinehund does not live here anymore“." And it was published in an Apr 30, 2011 blog titled "MacBook Air battery better than advertised." It was also published in a May 4, 2011 blog titled "How To Keep Your Laptop Cool." And it was published in an undated (late May 2011) blog titled "8 Reasons I Love My Laptop." It was also published in a May 25, 2011 blog titled "i2011年夏モデルが出そろったので検討してみた."

Moving into June, the photo was published in a Jun 3, 2011 blog titled "3 Things I’ve Learned about Blogging – And Life," as well as a Jun 9, 2011 Marketing-En-Web blog, with the same caption as what I had written on this Flickr page. And it was published in a Jun 13, 2011 blog titled "トップへデスクトップパソコンパソコン関連." It was also published in a Jun 17, 2011 blog titled "ノートパソコン使用時の姿勢の直し方を示した動画," as well as a Jun 17, 2011 blog titled "8 Personal Finance Basics to Tackle NOW." It was also published in a June 10, 2011 blog titled "The Real Social Life of Wireless Public Spaces." And it was published in a Jun 27, 2011 blog titled "„Isch hab Rücken!“ – mit dem Laptop auf der Wiese sitzen, as well as a Jun 28, 2011 blog titled "Taking your blog mobile: are you geared up?," as well as a Jun 28, 2011 Page i blog titled "Mac Book Airの販売は近い? 米Best Buyで販売一時停止." It was also published in a Jul 11, 2011 e-Portalik blog titled "Play: Więcej Internetu dla abonentów, nowe modemy." And it was published in a Jul 29, 2011 blog titled "Apple now has more cash than the US Government."

Moving into 2012, the photo was published in a Jan 15, 2012 blog titled "Nice Credit Card With Cash Back photos." It was also published in a Jan 23, 2012 blog titled "アメリカの若者たちの間で“愛の証”としてパスワードを共有することが流行." And it was published in a Jan 31, 2012 blog titled "Where Do I Start? How to Stop Dreaming and Get Moving" It was also published in a Feb 3,2012 blog titled "WM3600Rがあまりにも優れているので前機種WM3500Rとライバル機種URoad-8000を比較してみた," as well as a Feb 3, 2012 Nice Online Learning photos blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written on this Flickr page. And it was published in a Feb 10, 2012 Gizmodo blog titled "An Apple Patent for Displays That Optimize Themselves According to Your Surroundings." It was also published in a Mar 9, 2012 blog titled "How I Use Technology When I’m Traveling." And it was published in a Mar 15, 2012 blog titled "5 Reasons Not to Delete Your Emails." It was also published in a Mar 28, 2012 blog titled "Benefits of a Merchant Account for your Online Store." It was also published in an Apr 15, 2012 blog titled "5 FAQ about sunglasses," as well as an Apr 16, 2012 blog titled "E voi fate vedere il vostro profilo Facebook ai vostri figli?", as well as an Apr 19, 2012 blog titled "Googling Your Symptoms Will Make You Sick," and an Apr 20, 2012 blog titled "tSurvival Survey: What is your weekend prepping project?" It was also published in an Apr 30, 2012 blog titled "144 Places to Educate Yourself Online for Free," and it was published in a May 2, 2012 blog titled "Universities introduce distance-learning courses." It was also published in a May 24, 2012 blog titled "TWITTERFITTER – DEN NYE FEMINISMEN," as well as a May 31, 2012 blog titled "Escola virtual d’estiu Espiral." And it was published in an undated (early Jun 2012) Lurvely blog titled, with great imaginative creativity, "Photo by Ed Yourdon," as well as a Jun 1, 2012 Gigazine blog titled "節電でも最も利用を控えたくない家電は年齢・性別問わず「パソコン」." And it was published in what appears to be the home page of an undated (early Jun 2012) blog titled Social Blog Marketing. It was also published in an undated (early Jun 2012) blog titled "How to make money online by outsourcing data entry projects," as well as an undated (early Jun 2012) Colorado Springs Information Center blog titled "A Fresh Start To Finding A Job." It was also published in a Jun 21, 2012 blog titled "6 Little-Known Facts that Could Affect Your Air Miles." And it was published in a Jun 28, 2012 blog titled "Offenes WLAN in Zürich: Die Stadt will sparen und ein Netz wie in Bern."

Moving into the second half of 2012, the photo was published in a Jul 1, 2012 blog titled "Tlc: gli operatori europei vogliono adeguati ritorni sugli investment." And it was published in a Jul 3, 2012 blog titled "How To Run Your Blog While You Are on the Move." It was also published in a Jul 8, 2012 PolySquare blog titled (I think) "엮인글 주소가 복사되었습니다." And it was published in a Jul 19, 2012 blog titled "Jugendliche sind immer länger online," as well as a Jul 19, 2012 blog titled "Where to find free wifi at the London Olympics." It was also published in a Jul 28, 2012 blog titled "What You’re Actually Looking At When You Look At Facebook." And it was published in a Sep 2, 2012 blog titled "What Every Business Owner Should Understand About Article Marketing!" It was also published in a Sep 8, 2012 blog titled "Ask The Trainers: What Is Your Best Low (or no) Cost Marketing Tactic?" And it was published in a Sep 13, 2012 blog titled "Online-Shops: der Vergleich." I’ve discovered that it was also published in a Sep 5, 2012 blog titled "Online Reputation Management for Sex Bloggers." It was also published in an Oct 3, 2012 blog titled "Wat zoekt Generatie Y?", as well as an Oct 21, 2012 blog titled "Le paradox Facebook." And it was published in an Oct 15, 2012 blog titled "http://www.bloggingbistro.com/two-new-social-networks-to-try-recmnd-me-and-pocular/." It was also published in a Nov 13, 2012 blog titled "Varied Article Marketing Techniques to Try With Your Business." And it was published in an undated (mid-Nov 2012) blog titled "Legitimate Work From Home Jobs." It was also published in a Dec 5, 2012 blog titled "Ask LH: Can I Leave My Gadgets In A Hot Car?" And it was published in a Dec 29, 2012 blog titled "Work from home in your own online business."

Moving into 2013, the photo was published in a Jan 4, 2013 blog titled "Learn How To Make Your Article Submission A Big Success With These Tips." And it was published in a Jan 15, 2013 blog titled "10 erros comuns nos blogs." It was also published in a Jan 22, 2013 blog titled "Guest Post: New Year, New Career," as well as a Jan 25, 2013 blog titled "You Need Great Content If You Want Your Article To Succeed." And it was published in a Feb 8, 2013 Italian blog titled "Esserci o non esserci… sul web – 1^ Parte." It was also published in a Feb 10, 2013 blog titled "Making Long Distance Relationships Work." And it was published in a Feb 11, 2013 blog titled "Hack Like a Pro: How to Remotely Install a Keylogger onto Your Girlfriend’s Computer," as well as a Feb 16, 2013 blog titled "Lent Reflection: Focusing on Work and Rest." It was also published in a Feb 19, 2013 Finnish blog titled "Näin synkronoit Lumiasi Mac-tietokoneen kanssa." And it was published in a Feb 27, 2013 blog titled "Will MOOCs be the End of the College Campus?" It was also published in a Mar 1, 2013 blog titled "病気の発症にも影響!?情報化社会を生きるあなたが病気から自分を守るスキル“健康リテラシー”." And it was published in a Feb 27 , 2013 blog titled "Will MOOCs be the End of the College Campus?" It was also published in a Mar 22, 2013 blog titled "72% Of Professors Who Teach Online Courses Don’t Think Their Students Deserve Credit," as well as a Mar 23, 2013 blog titled "Když ovládnete svoji mysl, ovládnete svůj život." And it was published in a Mar 27, 2013 Dutch blog titled "MOOC’s hype of heilige graal?" It was also published in an Apr 2, 2013 blog titled "30 sources to keep you updated on business and marketing," and an Apr 3, 2013 blog titled "Blackberry Mobile Phones Technical Gadgets Providing Overwhelming Functionalities," as well as an Apr 4, 2013 blog titled "Job Searching Tips When Moving to Tasmania." And it was published in an Apr 21, 2013 blog titled "Zarabiaj na poradnikach internetowych!," as well as an Apr 25, 2013 blog titled "WO dynamisch masculien," and an Apr 26, 2013 blog titled "The Importance of Your Online Reputation."

Moving on, the photo was published in a May 1, 2013 blog titled "Here’s More Proof It’s Time To Switch To An Online Bank." And it was published in a May 2, 2013 blog titled "Veränderung durch Digitalisierung der Entwicklung." It was also published in an undated (mid-May 2013) blog titled "10 Reasons To Start a Travel Blog." And it was published in a May 15, 2013 blog titled "Does your PR Agency Know How to Connect?", as well as a May 16, 2013 blog titled "The Best Financial Software." It was also published in a May 22, 2013 blog titled "Women Manage Credit Better Than Men, Study Says." And it was published in a Jun 2, 2013 blog titled "Twitter rende più facile modificare il nostro profilo," as well as a Jun 5, 2013 blog titled "Medium is a platform for writers, not readers" and a Jun 5, 2013 blog titled "私なりのGoogle検索順位をアップさせる方法." It was also published in a Jun 11, 2013 blog titled "Leren van online studeren," as well as a Jun 12, 2013 blog titled "Higher Ed, Listen To Your Facebook Fans." And it was published in a Jun 27, 2013 blog titled "子どもができたらプログラミングを習わせたい ," as well as a Jun 27,2013 blog titled "After 10 years, Google purges Blogger of all "adult" sites." It was also published in a Jul 8, 2013 blog titled "Aantal flexwerkers gestegen," and a Jul 12, 2013 blog titled "Online Jobs for Your Teen This Summer," as well as a Jul 22, 2013 blog titled What I like best about being a Spotter….," and a Jul 20, 2013 Slate France blog titled "LES RELATIONS À DISTANCE FAVORISENT L’INTIMITÉ DANS LE COUPLE" and a Jul 22, 2013 blog titled "Как организовать поиск работы в Краснодаре." And it was published in a Jul 26, 2013 Selmicro blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written on this Flickr page. It was also published in an undated (mid-August 2013) blog titled "Get Your Name Out There With These Wonderful Tips." And it was published in a Sep 10, 2013 blog titled "Students Battle School Districts Over First Amendment Rights On Social Media."

Moving into 2014, the photo was the first of my Flickr archives to be published — in a Jan 1, 2014 blog titled "The Evils of Social Media." It was also published in a Jan 10, 2014 blog titled "スモールビジネスを選択する判断基準 10のチェック項目." And it was published in a Mar 13, 2014 blog titled "Outil B2B : le troc entre professionals." And it was published in a May 1, 2014 blog titled "What gives a website game-changer status? Or, how to have a website that sells." It was also published in an Aug 12, 2014 blog titled "More sunlight exposure reduces risk of shortsightedness."

Moving into 2015, the photo was published in an undated (mid-January 2015) German blog titled Jugendliche und Datenschutz in Sozialen Netzwerken

Related Start Online Business Articles

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20_About, five-thirty (AM), he would return
start online business
Image by Jim Surkamp
READ AHEAD FOR SCRIPT AND IMAGES IN SCRIPT
Andrew Leopold’s Forlorn Hope (2) – by Jim Surkamp With Author Steve French
civilwarscholars.com/?p=13391 5515 words.

by Jim Surkamp on June 19, 2014 in Civilian, Confederate, Jefferson County, Union, Wartime
Andrew Leopold Warmaker To Peacemaker With Steve French, Author “Rebel Chronicles,” contact: [email protected]

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

Redmond Burke, Andrew Leopold, and Their Gang Descend on The River Towns:
1_Leopold is ordered by General Stuart
2_on “detached service” and, with a small team
3_from Berryville to Shepherdstown
Leopold is ordered by General Stuart to join Redmond Burke on “detached service” and, with a small team, stays behind in the Potomac River area from Berryville to Shepherdstown while the main Confederate Army moves further south. His job is to find conscripts, carry mail between homes and soldiers, steal horses and watch the movements of the Federal army. Leopold in carrying mail, is also enabled to determine the names of, and whereabouts of able-bodied men not enlisted in his Confederate army, such as Jacob Hudson and Charles Entler.

The Wayward Letter:
4_One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy
(One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy was a “thank you” note to widow Lily Parran Lee in Shepherdstown. Gen. Stuart had been trying to order a new uniform while at The Bower. He had visited Mrs. Lee, a dear and trusted friend in Shepherdstown. Her husband, William Fitzhugh Lee, died at First Manassas/Bull Run wearing silver spurs Stuart had given him. It seems, according to the letter, that Daniel Rentch, a merchant in Shepherdstown, was commissioned and – did indeed have made – the famed cape that J.E.B. Stuart would wear in the war. It was delivered. In the letter Stuart tells Mrs. Lee to thank Mr. Rentch for the cape. Burke was carrying a letter between Stuart and Mrs. Lee, maybe this one).

Wednesday – November 19, 1862, Dam No. 4 on the Potomac River – Leopold’s First Victim:

5_Leopold’s First Victim
Fearing conscription, Unionist residents hastily relocated across the Potomac into the safety of Maryland. The large family of one Jim Dunn was making such a move across the river near the guard lock of Dam No. 4, wth some pickets from the 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry watching from the Maryland side. Burke’s and Leopold’s gang suddenly appeared and with gunfire broke up the moving, leaving most of Dunn’s family stuck still on the Virginia side. Dunn was stuck on the Maryland side. Dunn asked three local men – Theodore “Mort” Cookus, a farmer with land on the Virginia side, Charles Ridenour and William Colbert – ambling along on the towpath – to help get his family and cargo across the river. After over an hour, the four men re-crossed the Potomac to the Virginia side. Burke and Leopold and others attacked again:

Author French Recounts Leopold’s Firing On “Mort” Cookus:

6_Author French Recounts
Suddenly Burke, Leopold, Hipsley and O’Brien appeared. Leopold shouted to Ridenour, “Halt you Yankee Son-of-a bitch!”. . . He (Ridenour) remembered Cookus crying out, “For God’s sake men, don’t shoot me!” Burke replied, “Surrender or we will surely kill you.” Then almost simultaneously, the captain and Leopold each fired once into the skiff. Cookus, now hit on the left side, jumped into the river. “After Cookus jumped out,” Ridenour later testified, “he swam twelve or fifteen feet and received three more shots. Every time the guns crack, he dodged his head under water. Capt. Burke says don’t kill him. Laypole says I will kill the son of a bitch.” And he did. Union Gen. George Gordon wrote: . . . a brave and plucky fellow named Cookus . . . plunged into the river and struck out vigorously for the Maryland shore. Two-thirds of the way across he was hit by a bullet and sank dead to the bottom of the river. – Gordon, p. 14.
– See more . . .

7_sank dead to the bottom of the river

Author Steve French:

8_they’re all back with Stuart
They are taken to Fort McHenry. The soldiers who are captured – they’re released very soon afterwards, paroled. And by January the first, 1864, they’re all back with Stuart at his camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia. That winter, as soon as he is exchanged and the others are exchanged, they’re back in the service – dispatched service – operating once again in the Shepherdstown/Berryville area, carrying mail back and forth between the citizens and armies, scouting and so on.

March 6, 1863 – Leopold – the Deserter’s Avenger in Shepherdstown:

9_he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien
Author Steve French:
On the night of March the 6th, he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien, and he’s hunting for a man named Jacob Hudson. He finds Hudson caring for his uncle at his house at Shepherdstown. And he knocks on the door with O’Brien. Evidently he doesn’t know Hudson, but Hudson has been talking about him around town. When Hudson opens the door, Leopold asks for Hudson – “Is Hudson in the house?” – Hudson immediately becomes scared and he runs toward the back door and he is shot down. George Brantner, who was a former Confederate soldier, he’s seated right in that room, cannot tell whether it was Leopold or O’Brien who shot the young man, but he sure identifies him later on, because Leopold met Brantner at the door and (Leopold) told him he had mail for him. Leopold will come down the street that night. He will tell one resident (Federal postmaster Elias Baker on German Street-JS) here in the town that he did shoot a man up the street and then they will leave the mail here and head back for camp.

10_Leopold Avenges Again
March 15-16, 1863 – Leopold Avenges Again at the Bridgeport, MD Ferry:
Author French:

11_group of men go to Sharpsburg
12_Charles Entler
Ten days later, on the night of March 15th & 16th, Leopold and a group of men go to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and, in Sharpsburg that night they steal six horses from an oyster wagon, parked outside of a local tavern. After midnight on the 16th, they return to try to get across the river. They go to Bridgeport where the ferry is, directly behind me, and they knock on the door. They say they have a dispatch to take to Harper’s Ferry to (Federal) General Stevenson. The young man, Charles Entler and his friend Samuel Jones, that are in the office that night, sleeping in the office, refuse to answer the door. Finally, Leopold starts tearing the shutters off the windows and Charles decides to come out. Samuel Jones would later say he knew it was Leopold at the door, but he was too scared, too frightened to say a word. As Charles comes out the door, his brother, Luther, who is in the ferry house himself, walks outside; and, as soon as he gets outside, he hears a man shout at his brother:

13_By God, I’m Captain Leopold
14_Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies
“By God, I’m Captain Leopold and I’ve been looking for you a long time.” Immediately the gunshot goes off, Luther turns, makes haste into his house to get his revolver. His brother, Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies in the road, going up towards Ferry Hill. Leopold and his men escape. Now, they’re wanted men. The Middletown Valley Register over in Maryland, a few days later, comes out with a long article about Leopold and his band and at the end of it says: “Leopold deserves a hempen collar.” So he’s a wanted man, not only by the authorities in Maryland, but by Union soldiers, especially Major General Robert Milroy, the famous “Grey Eagle,” who was headquartered at that time in Winchester.

April 21-22, 1863 south of Millwood, Va.- Leopold and his team are recaptured:

French continues:
Towards the end of April around April 21st, Union forces are sent out of Berryville and they go to Castleman’s Ferry. That night, they will capture Leopold, and, once again, some of the Burkes – Hipsley and some other men when they surround the house, and they threaten to burn it down, if the Confederates don’t come out.

15_They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail
Author French continues:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and find out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand.

16_brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy
Leopold (Laypole, Leopole) is brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy at Winchester, VA and begins bargaining:

Major-General SCHENCK,WINCHESTER, VA., April 25, 1863. Baltimore, Md.: Rebel [Andrew T.] Leopole, the last two days in irons, hoping for leniency, makes this statement:

Residence, Sharpsburg, Md. Enlisted in Confederate service two years ago, as ensign First Regiment Virginia (rebel) Cavalry, and remained in that regiment until Stuart’s appointment as brigadier, about a month after the first battle of Manassas, when I became ensign of his brigade, which I continued to be until last May, when I was transferred to the Virginia Cavalry as third lieutenant. I continued in that regiment until after the battle of Sharpsburg, in September last, when I was promoted to first lieutenant of Company D, same regiment, in which regiment I served until November 24 last, when I was captured at Shepherdstown. I remained a prisoner until January 6 last, when I was exchanged, and reported, as ordered, to General Stuart, at his headquarters, where I remained until January 13, acting as his couriers. On January 14, as ordered by him, I left for Castlemans Ferry, in command of 70 men, where I remained until last Tuesday, when, with 6 of my men, I was captured. My business there was to observe the movements of Federal forces, . . .

NOTE – At this point Leopold appears to be divulging intelligence on Confederate positions to Milroy in hope of leniency – JS:
and report to General Fitzhugh Lee, who is now between Markham Station and Manassas Gap Railroad and the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles east of the Blue Ridge, with the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Tenth Virginia Cavalry and two batteries. Regiments average about 350 men each. The locality of these troops is about 16 miles from Castlemans Ferry and 10 miles from Berrys Ferry. General Trimble, with three infantry brigades, is near Orleans, in Fauquier County. Lee’s and Trimble’s forces moved at the same time from Culpeper Court-House to their present position, where they arrived about two days before my capture. There are two other brigades one from Louisiana and the other from Virginia encamped between Sperryville and Little Washington. They belong to Trimble’s division. With each brigade is a battery, and a battalion of artillery besides, attached to the division. The brigades, I think, will average 1,900 men each. The two brigades near Sperryville came that far with the other brigades, and halted there. I saw Geueral Stuart on the 17th of this month between Salem and Jefferson, and learned from him that A. P. Hill, with a portion of his command, had left for the Valley by way of Hanover Junction, Charlottesville, and Staunton. I saw Hill’s baggage at Culpeper, and learned from the master of transportation that it was en route from Staunton. I heard General Stuart say that the Federal forces at Winchester would be captured as soon as the Shenandoah River became passable. I also learned from his general order book that Jones had been ordered to march to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and destroy certain trestle-work on that road. I am tired of fighting, and wish to take the oath of allegiance and retire into Ohio. I have always stood high with General Stuart, enjoyed his confidence, and, when at his headquarters, ate at his table.

Milroy concludes in this report:
The above statement is strongly corroborated by other circumstances and information. I recommend that Heintzelman be directed to ascertain the truth of the above statement, so far as it refers to Fitzhugh Lees and Trimbles forces and their locality. R. H. MILROY, Major-General. – Letter to Maj. General Robert C. Schenck from Maj. General R. H. Milroy. pp. 252-253.

Author French recaps:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and finds out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand. So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

Fort McHenry, MD – Leopold is not trusted, is tried after much delay and hanged:

French continues:
So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

17_Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted
Captain Joel Baker, the guard, comments that most of the prisoners of the group – there’s about eight or nine in the guard room – most of the prisoners are cultured gentlemen, but not Leopold. Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted by the other prisoners. They think he would sell them out for just a few cents.

Leopold is held in prison until mid-December, 1863, when he is put on trial by a military tribunal. He’s charged with a number of crimes, of being a guerrilla, murderer, violating an act of war, and being a spy. The tribunal is led by Col. W. W. Bates of the 8th New York heavy artillery. The Judge Advocate is Lieutenant Roderick Baldwin. Leopold will represent himself, but he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq. who was well-known in Baltimore for many years.

18_he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq.
Author French continues:
The trial opens up. A lot of local residents come from here to Fort McHenry to testify, including Daniel Rentch, Luther Entler, Samuel Jones, other men from Shepherdstown and also General Milroy will appear. The trial will go – on and off – for probably three, almost four, weeks. They break for Christmas a while; they break for different witnesses to arrive. Finally, two charges are dropped, but he is still charged with being a guerrilla and murderer, both capital offences.

19_wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier
His defense rests on that he wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier, especially dispatched into this area by J.E.B. Stuart. Also, he refused to admit that he had murdered Charles Entler. He said he didn’t have anything more to do with the murder of that young boy than any of the judges on the tribunal; and, he said the shooting of Cookus was just part of a local skirmish. So he denied being a guerrilla; he denied being a murderer.

In his summation, Lt. Baldwin, the Judge Advocate, would say: we owe something to the people of the border who have been hounded from their home, who have been murdered at their doorstep. We need to protect them.

The verdict comes back. He is convicted of murder: the murder of Entler, the murder of Cookus – and he is convicted of being a guerilla. Afterwards, the verdict and the results of the trial – goes up through the chain of command. Finally, they reach that April, Judge Advocate Joseph Holt. Holt reviews all capital cases for Abraham Lincoln. In a four-page review, Holt will say this man has been convicted of these crimes and he deserves the death penalty. In late April, 1864, Abraham Lincoln will sign off on that.

French continues:
At that time, Leopold is taken from the guard room, shackled. He’s put in a cell, still in the inner fort, but not with the rest of the men on death row. During that month, there is a big escape from the guard room at Fort McHenry. William Boyd Compton leads the rest of the men in the escape and they all eventually get back to the Confederate lines.

On the evening of April the 22nd, Leopold will be informed by his chaplain, Doctor Reese, that his execution will be the next morning. He will meet with Reese that evening for prayer and communion. During the winter, Leopold would become a committed Christian. He studied the Bible frequently. He had another small book that he would study. They had prayer. Reese left for a while.

20_About, five-thirty (AM), he would return
About, five-thirty (AM), he would return. Once again, they would talk of the afterlife. Then he (Leopold) would go out under guard, get on the wagon atop his coffin, and he would ride to the execution site right outside the walls.

21_Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner
Captain Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner at Fort McHenry at the time. He was out on the grounds of the fort and as he passed Baylor, Leopold would wave to Baylor and said: “Tell the boys I remain true to the cause.” As they neared the execution site, he could see the soldiers of the fort lined up on three sides of the gallows. The gallows there could have four executions at the time.

22_Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.”
(Federal) Major General Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.” He was the commander-in-chief of the Eighth Corps Middle Department, and Brig. General W. W. Morris, the sixty-six year old commander of Fort McHenry was also there.

23_Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said
24_The hood was put on his neck
He was helped off the wagon. The reporter for “The Baltimore American” said that “Leopold went up the steps firm and undaunted.” Once atop the scaffold, he was asked for any last words and Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said: “Old man, you’re the reason I’m here. But I’ll forgive and I’ll meet you in Heaven.” After that, he stepped back. The hood was put on his neck by Private Elijah Brown, and then the rope put around his neck.

25_Leopold dropped into eternity
Just afterwards, Morris gave the signal, and then – Leopold dropped into eternity. He would hang there for about twenty minutes before the soldiers took him down. There were friends there in Baltimore, some of Leopold’s friends. They brought him back to Sharpsburg, where he was prepared for burial. A few days later, he was going to be brought to Shepherdstown to bury in the Soldier’s Cemetery. His plot will be right beside Redmond Burke, his old Captain. But he’s going to be brought across here by the undertaker, (with) of course his mother and sisters are with that group.

26_They’re going to ride up this hill
They’re going to ride up this hill. At the Entler Hotel, there is a group of Unionists shouting at the undertaker to go back. Beforehand these same people had (gone) to the cemetery and warned the over four hundred mourners there to leave, but they ignored them. They go to the cemetery – once again – there’s a big crowd there. Lots of girls crying and so on. He is buried.

French continues:
Although maybe a year before, Leopold had been a hated person by most Confederates in this area because they heard that he was going to switch sides. By this time, he totally redeemed himself. His conversion to Christianity, his bravery on the scaffold had turned him into a local hero. Later on, that same day, the Unionists would strike. They would come back and would steal the undertaker’s hearse and his horses and ride away with them. Whether he was really guilty of every crime that he was accused is questionable. He wasn’t a guerilla. He was a member of the regular Confederate Cavalry and there’s some question, on the murder of Entler that it might have O’Brien did the shooting.

27_Mary Louise Entler
Mary Louise Entler who lived her life from rebel wild cat to 92-year old wise woman in Shepherdstown at the time she died there March 27, 1932 who carried mail with Leopold and tried to save him, wrote: “His fault was recklessness. He did not stop to consider what might be his fate if caught in the Union lines, and he had run the gauntlet so often without being caught that he became heedless of danger.”

28_he became heedless of danger


You will find that the basics and logic of business remain the same, regardless of whether it is an online business or offline. The difference lies in the fact that, to run an online business successfully, you will need to know the fundamentals of any business and have an understanding of the dynamics that drive web-based businesses. Let’s break this up. To start a business, you will need to have:

* A great business idea
* A solid, realistic business plan, including the financing aspect
* Understand legal issues
* Understand accounting and taxation issues
* Construct a marketing strategy
* Create and maintain a customer base and plan customer service

To start an online business, you will also need to:

* Make sure your business idea works for an online business
* Decide whether or not you need to start a website
* If you do need a website, you will need the technical skill to know how to start, run and manage one
* Understand online marketing and advertising tactics and tools
* Find new and creative ways to drive traffic to your start up online business
* Understand dynamics of customer interaction for an online business

So start with your business idea – try to do a SWOT analysis, i.e. an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that face your concept. Be sure it will work as an online business by thinking – will people buy this product or service online and what value can I offer online that a customer does not get offline? Find out about legal issues surrounding your product or service before starting anything. Determine your start up’s business model – do you want to sell on eBay or start a site or extend your offline store?

Next, come up with a business plan – include all costs, all means of possible financing, how you will achieve the financing, logistics of how to procure the product and how to deliver it, and keep in mind that an online business needs to have realistic projections of future income, just like an offline one. Websites can be expensive to start and maintain. Make sure you really need one and account for the expenditure. Be sure that you find reliable service providers – such as the right web host and pay channels. Consider accounting and tax issues in your analysis and planning phase, so you will be realistic in your projections.

Build a comprehensive marketing strategy – understand the concepts of internet marketing like search engine optimization (SEO), online advertising, and other ways to increase traffic to your website. Finding a great name is important – something short and simple. Further, make a plan that includes effective and efficient customer service and builds a database or mailing list of customers. Remember that this is an ongoing process for any business and in the case of an online business, it is even more crucial to stay ahead of the game. An online business does not have face time with the customer so it’s important to maintain a healthy communication with all customers.

Keep the above pointers in mind and start planning your way to a successful online business.

William King is the director of UK Wholesale Suppliers, Wholesale Suppliers and Dropshipping Directory. He has 18 years of experience in the marketing and trading industries and has been helping retailers and startups with their product sourcing, promotion, marketing and supply chain requirements.